A seizure is a brain disorder in which a person experiences abnormal behaviour, such as uncontrollable shaking, loss of consciousness, loss of movement and become unaware of the surroundings. It’s all because of abnormal electrical discharge that occurs in our brain. It is a chronic disorder which can last for a year or can be lifelong.
Types of Seizures
1. Partial seizure:
Partial seizure begins in a specific area of the brain and remains confined to that area.
There are two types of partial seizure;
– With retained awareness: It is also known as the simple partial seizure in which a person remains conscious.
– With the loss of awareness: It is also called the complex seizure which involves impaired consciousness.
2. Generalised seizure:
In a generalised seizure, a person loses consciousness and often collapses. It involves both sides of the brain. There are six types of generalised seizure;
– Absence: The activity occurs throughout the brain. They are brief and last only two to ten seconds. It usually consists of unconsciousness, blank stares and repetitive movements. Once it subsides, a person has no memory of it.
– Myoclonic: It involves muscle jerks in a single part or the whole body. It can occur in a single event or in series. Consciousness and memory are not impaired.
– Tonic: There is an electric discharge instantly and involves the entire brain. It usually lasts for one to three minutes. A person loses consciousness right from the start.
– Atonic: This seizure is also known as a drop attack. As the name suggests, a person unexpectedly loses consciousness, collapses and falls on the floor. This can last for a few seconds.
– Clonic: These are rare and most commonly occur in babies. In this type, jerking of body or part of the body are the main symptoms. It can last from seconds up to one or two minutes.
– Tonic seizure:– it usually happens during sleep and usually involves all or most of the brain. The body, arms and legs become stiff or tense suddenly. They are short and last usually for less than twenty seconds. A person may be aware or notice a small change during the seizure.
What causes a seizure?
Well, the exact cause of the seizure is unknown. But certain factors can trigger a seizure such as:
– Having brain fracture or brain injury
– Low blood sugar
– Lack of sleep
– Drinking alcohol
– Changes in hormones
– Use of drugs such heroin or cocaine
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of it vary depending on which area of the brain is affected. However, there are a few common symptoms, such as loss of bladder control or motor control.
When it stops, a person may have a headache, sore muscles, an unusual sensation, confusion and fatigue. Some people may also sense only one side of their body affected. These symptoms last longer than the actual seizure.
Continuous seizure state is a life-threatening medical emergency and requires immediate medical help. Visit a doctor if you experience anything like this. They may prescribe you some medicines which will help you to control or reduce the electrical activities in your brain.
Surgery is also an option in case of partial seizure on the part of the brain which is affected. Changes in diet such as ketogenic diet are suggested under strict medical supervision. Relaxation techniques or yoga can also be used with medication.
Experiencing Seizures can be frightening, and although there is no permanent cure for seizures or seizure disorders, treatment aims to reduce risk factors, manage symptoms, and prevent seizures from recurring.
Edited by Preetika Dubey